Roster Management
Drug Test Results

 

SUBSTANCE USE AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER BY INDUSTRY

Data from the SAMHSA CBHSQ Report

AUTHORS Donna M. Bush, Ph.D., F-ABFT, and Rachel N. Lipari, Ph.D.

 

INTRODUCTION

Substance use negatively affects U.S. industry through lost productivity, workplace accidents and injuries, employee absenteeism, low morale, and increased illness. U.S. companies lose billions of dollars a year because of employees' alcohol and drug use and related problems.1 Research shows that the rate of substance use varies by occupation and industry.2

 

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) gathers information about substance use and dependence or abuse. NSDUH defines illicit drugs as marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, or prescription-type drugs used nonmedically.3 Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on 5 or more days in the past 30 days. NSDUH also includes a series of questions to assess symptoms of dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs during the past year. These questions are used to classify persons as dependent on or abusing substances based on criteria in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).4 In this report, dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs is referred to as a "substance use disorder."

 

This report is one of several designed to update SAMHSA’s Analytic Series A–29, Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs, published in 2007. To enhance the statistical power and analytic capability and ensure consistency in time frames across all of the updated reports, 5-year time periods were chosen. This issue of The CBHSQ Report uses combined data from the 2008 to 2012 surveys to present estimates of substance use behaviors (past month illicit drug use and past month heavy alcohol use) and past year substance use disorder among persons aged 18 to 64 who are employed full time by industry category. Full-time employment is defined as working 35 or more hours per week and working in the past week or having a job despite not working in the past week. NSDUH includes questions to assess the type of business or industry in which these respondents worked. Using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) developed by the U.S. Census Bureau, 19 major industry groupings were identified.

 

The analyses presented in this report includes comparisons of the 2008 to 2012 rates of illicit drug use and heavy alcohol use across industries and comparisons of the 2008 to 2012 rates with the 2003 to 2007 rates within each industry. For this report, testing for differences across industry groupings included two phases. First, differences across industries were assessed by making pair-wise comparisons between industries (e.g., the rates for each industry were compared with those of every other industry) to identify whether any industry had significantly higher rates than all other industries. A second test was conducted to assess whether significant differences between industries were the result of differences in the age and gender composition of the industry.5 Previous research has shown that males have higher substance use rates than females and adults aged 18 to 25 have higher substance use rates than older adults.6 As a result, male-dominated or youth-dominated industries could have higher substance use rates at the overall level, but when the industry’s age and gender distribution was taken into account, the industry might not differ from other industries. The final section of this report presents comparisons of combined 2008 to 2012 data with combined 2003 to 2007 data.

 

SUBSTANCE USE, BY INDUSTRY CATEGORY

Rates of substance use behaviors and substance use disorder varied across industry groupings. The overall rate of past month heavy alcohol use among full-time workers aged 18 to 64 was 8.7 percent. Rates of past month heavy alcohol use ranged from 17.5 percent among workers in the mining industry to 4.4 percent among workers in the health care and social assistance industry (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1. Past month heavy alcohol use among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category: combined 2008 to 2012

 

 

This bar graph shows percentages of past month heavy alcohol use among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category, using combined data from 2008 to 2012. From 2008 to 2012, 17.5% of adults employed full time in the mining industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 16.5% of adults employed full time in the construction industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 11.8% of adults employed full time in the accommodations and food services industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 11.5% of adults employed full time in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 10.3% of adults employed full time in the utilities industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 10.2% of adults employed full time in the wholesale trade industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 9.9% of adults employed full time in the management * industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 9.7% of adults employed full time in the manufacturing industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 9.4% of adults employed full time in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 9.0% of adults employed full time in the retail industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 8.8% of adults employed full time in the transportation and warehousing industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 8.5% of adults employed full time in the real estate, rental, and leasing industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 8.5% of adults employed full time in other services (except public administration) had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 8.1% of adults employed full time in the information industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 7.7% of adults employed full time in professional, scientific, and technical services had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 7.4% of adults employed full time in the finance and insurance industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 6.6% of adults employed full time in the public administration industry had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 4.7% of adults employed full time in educational services had past month heavy alcohol use. From 2008 to 2012, 4.4% of adults employed full time in the health care and social assistance industry had past month heavy alcohol use. If you would like someone from our staff to read the numbers on this graph or table image to you, please call 240-276-1250.

* The full title of this category is "Management of companies and enterprises, administration, support, waste management, and remediation services.”

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) 2008 to 2010 (revised March 2012) and 2011 to 2012.

 

Workers in the mining (17.5 percent) and construction (16.5 percent) industries had the highest rates of past month heavy alcohol use. For the workers in the construction industry, this finding remained true even when controlling for gender and age differences across industries.7 This indicates that there is something unique about past month heavy alcohol use for the construction industry that would remain even if the construction industry had the same gender and age distribution of any other industry (see Tables A1–A2). However, for the mining industry, this higher rate did not remain when controlling for age or gender differences. This indicates that the high heavy alcohol use rate in the mining industry can be attributed to the demographic composition of the mining industry.

 

The overall rate of past month illicit drug use among full-time workers aged 18 to 64 was 8.6 percent. Rates of past month illicit drug use ranged from 19.1 percent among workers in the accommodations and food services industry to 4.3 percent among workers in the public administration industry (Figure 2). These findings remained true even when controlling for gender and age differences across industries (see Tables A3–A4).

 

Figure 2. Past month illicit drug use among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category: combined 2008 to 2012

 

This bar graph shows percentages of past month illicit drug use among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category, using combined data from 2008 to 2012. From 2008 to 2012, 19.1% of adults employed full time in the accommodations and food services industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 13.7% of adults employed full time in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 12.1% of adults employed full time in the management * industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 11.7% of adults employed full time in the information industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 11.6% of adults employed full time in the construction industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 11.2% of adults employed full time in other services (except public administration) had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 10.9% of adults employed full time in the real estate, rental, and leasing industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 10.3% of adults employed full time in the retail trade industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 9.0% of adults employed full time in the professional, scientific, and technical services industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 7.8% of adults employed full time in the wholesale trade industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 7.4% of adults employed full time in the manufacturing industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 6.5% of adults employed full time in the finance and insurance industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 6.1% of adults employed full time in the utilities industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 5.9% of adults employed full time in the transportation and warehousing industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 5.7% of adults employed full time in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 5.5% of adults employed full time in the health care and social assistance industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 5.0% of adults employed full time in the mining industry had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 4.8% of adults employed full time in educational services had past month illicit drug use. From 2008 to 2012, 4.3% of adults employed full time in the public administration industry had past month illicit drug use. If you would like someone from our staff to read the numbers on this graph or table image to you, please call 240-276-1250.

* The full title of this category is "Management of companies and enterprises, administration, support, waste management, and remediation services.”

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) 2008 to 2010 (revised March 2012) and 2011 to 2012.

 

The overall rate of past year substance use disorder among full-time workers aged 18 to 64 was 9.5 percent. Rates of past year substance use disorder ranged from 16.9 percent among workers in the accommodations and food services industry to 5.5 percent among workers in the educational services industry (Figure 3). Although the accommodations and food services industry group had the highest rate of past year substance use disorder, this finding did not remain true after controlling for age and gender distributions. This indicates that the high rate can be attributed to the demographic composition of the accommodation and food services industry (see Tables A5–A6).

 

Figure 3. Past year substance use disorder among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category: combined 2008 to 2012

 

This bar graph shows percentages of past year substance use disorder among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category, using combined data from 2008 to 2012. From 2008 to 2012, 16.9% of adults employed full time in the accommodations and food services industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 14.3% of adults employed full time in the construction industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 12.9% of adults employed full time in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 11.8% of adults employed full time in the mining industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 11.5% of adults employed full time in the utilities industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 11.4% of adults employed full time in the management * industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 10.5% of adults employed full time in the retail industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 10.5% of adults employed full time in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 10.4% of adults employed full time in the wholesale trade industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 10.1% of adults employed full time in other services (except public administration) had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 10.0% of adults employed full time in the real estate, rental, and leasing industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 9.8% of adults employed full time in the information industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 9.4% of adults employed full time in the finance and insurance industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 9.3% of adults employed full time in the manufacturing industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 9.1% of adults employed full time in the transportation and warehousing industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 8.8% of adults employed full time in professional, scientific, and technical services had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 7.2% of adults employed full time in the public administration industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 5.7% of adults employed full time in the health care and social assistance industry had past year substance use disorder. From 2008 to 2012, 5.5% of adults employed full time in educational services had past year substance use disorder. If you would like someone from our staff to read the numbers on this graph or table image to you, please call 240-276-1250.

* The full title of this category is "Management of companies and enterprises, administration, support, waste management, and remediation services.”

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) 2008 to 2010 (revised March 2012) and 2011 to 2012.

 

TRENDS

Comparisons between combined 2003 to 2007 data and combined 2008 to 2012 data show some changes in rates of substance use behaviors or disorders by industry category (Figures 4–6). Between the two time periods, rates of past month illicit drug use increased among workers in the accommodations and food services industry (from 16.9 to 19.1 percent) and in the educational services industry (from 3.7 to 4.8 percent), and decreased among workers in the construction services industry (from 13.9 to 11.6 percent). Additionally, decreases were seen in the rates of past year substance use disorder in four industry categories: construction (from 17.3 to 14.3 percent), management (from 13.8 to 11.4 percent), wholesale trade (from 13.4 to 10.4 percent), and manufacturing (from 10.4 to 9.3 percent). The changes within each industry between the two time periods do not account for any changes in the demographic composition (e.g., age distribution) that may have occurred within the industries.

 

Figure 4. Past month heavy alcohol use among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category: combined 2003 to 2007 and combined 2008 to 2012

 

This bar graph shows percentages of past month heavy alcohol use for adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category, for both combined 2003 to 2007 data and combined 2008 to 2012 data. Among adults employed full time in the mining industry, 16.2% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 17.5% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the construction industry, 15.6% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 16.5% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry, 12.9% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 11.5% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the accommodations and food services industry, 12.5% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 11.8% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the wholesale trade industry, 12.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 10.2% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the utilities industry, 11.0% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 10.3% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry, 10.3% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 9.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the real estate, rental, and leasing industry, 9.9% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 8.5% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in other services (except public transportation), 9.7% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 8.5% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the management * industry, 9.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 9.9% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the retail trade industry, 9.3% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 9.0% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the manufacturing industry, 9.2% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 9.7% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the information industry, 9.1% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 8.1% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the transportation and warehousing industry, 8.7% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 8.8% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the finance and insurance industry, 7.8% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 7.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in professional, scientific, and technical services, 7.1% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 7.7% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the public administration industry, 6.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 6.6% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the health care and social assistance industry, 4.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 4.4% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in educational services, 4.1% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2003 to 2007, and 4.7% had past month heavy alcohol use in 2008 to 2012. If you would like someone from our staff to read the numbers on this graph or table image to you, please call 240-276-1250.

* The full title of this category is "Management of companies and enterprises, administration, support, waste management, and remediation services.”

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) 2003 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012) and 2011 to 2012.

 

Figure 5. Past month illicit drug use among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category: combined 2003 to 2007 and combined 2008 to 2012

 

This bar graph shows percentages of past month illicit drug use for adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category, for both combined 2003 to 2007 data and combined 2008 to 2012 data. Among adults employed full time in the accommodations and food services* industry, 16.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 19.1% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the construction* industry, 13.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 11.6% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry, 12.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 13.7% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the information industry, 11.1% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 11.7% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the management** industry, 10.7% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 12.1% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in other services (except public administration), 9.8% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 10.3% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the retail trade industry, 9.8% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 10.3% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the real estate, rental, and leasing industry, 9.0% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 10.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the wholesale trade industry, 8.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 7.8% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in professional, scientific, and technical services, 8.0% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 9.0% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the mining industry, 7.4% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 5.0% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the manufacturing industry, 7.3% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 7.4% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the finance and insurance industry, 7.2% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 6.5% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the transportation and warehousing industry, 6.4% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 5.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the health care and social assistance industry, 5.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 5.5% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry, 5.4% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 5.7% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the utilities industry, 3.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 6.1% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the public administration industry, 3.9% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 4.3% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in educational services*, 3.7% had past month illicit drug use in 2003 to 2007, and 4.8% had past month illicit drug use in 2008 to 2012. If you would like someone from our staff to read the numbers on this graph or table image to you, please call 240-276-1250.

* Difference between estimates for 2003 to 2007 and for 2008 to 2012 are statistically significant at .05 level.

** The full title of this category is "Management of companies and enterprises, administration, support, waste management, and remediation services.”

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) 2003 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012) and 2011 to 2012.

 

Figure 6. Past year substance use disorder among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category: combined 2003 to 2007 and combined 2008 to 2012

 

This bar graph shows percentages of past year substance use disorder among adults aged 18 to 64 employed full time, by industry category, for both combined 2003 to 2007 data and combined 2008 to 2012 data. Among adults employed full time in the accommodations and food services industry, 17.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 16.9% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the construction* industry, 17.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 16.9% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the mining industry, 17.3% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 14.3% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the management*,** industry, 14.3% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 11.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the wholesale trade* industry, 13.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 10.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry, 13.0% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 12.9% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the real estate, rental, and leasing industry, 11.2% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 10.0% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the retail trade industry, 11.2% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 10.5% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the information industry, 10.8% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 9.8% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the manufacturing* industry, 10.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 9.3% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the finance and insurance industry, 10.0% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 9.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the transportation and warehousing industry, 9.9% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 9.1% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry, 9.6% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 10.5% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in professional, scientific, and technical services, 9.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 8.8% had past year substance use disorder  in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in other services (except public administration), 9.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 10.1% had past year substance us e disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the utilities industry, 9.1% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 11.5% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the public administration industry, 6.5% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 7.2% had past year substance use disorder in 2 008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in the health care and social assistance industry, 6.4% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 5.7% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. Among adults employed full time in educational services, 5.0% had past year substance use disorder in 2003 to 2007, and 5.5% had past year substance use disorder in 2008 to 2012. If you would like someone from our staff to read the numbers on this graph or table image to you, please call 240-276-1250.

* Difference between estimates for 2003 to 2007 and for 2008 to 2012 are statistically significant at .05 level.

** The full title of this category is "Management of companies and enterprises, administration, support, waste management, and remediation services.”

Source: SAMHSA, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUHs) 2003 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 (revised March 2012) and 2011 to 2012.